Motivation: Set of factors that activate, direct, and maintain behavior, usually toward a goal: Specific need of desire, hunger, thirst, or achievement that prompts goal directed behavior
Emotion: Subjective feeling including arousal, cognitions, and expressions: feelings such as fear, joy, or surprise that underlies behavior
Theories and Concepts of Motivation:
- Motivation and Behavior
- Theories and Concepts of Emotion
- Critical Thinking about Motivation and Emotion
- Drive Reduction
Perspectives on Motivation:
- Inborn, unlearned, goal directed behavior that is characteristic of an entire species
- Human behavior is not easily explained by instincts because:
–Important Human behavior is learned
–Human behavior is rarely inflexible
Drive Reduction Theory
- Internal tensions “push” toward satisfying basic needs
- State of tension caused by bodily needs
- Theory is that motivated behavior is an attempt to reduce a drive and return the body to homeostasis
- Primary Drive: unlearned drive such as hunger based on a physiological state
- Secondary Drive: learned drive such as ambition
- Motivated to seek an optimal level of arousal for a given moment
- Yerkes-Dodson Law: there is an optimal level or arousal for best performance on any task
- The more complex the task, the lower the level of arousal that can be tolerated without interfering with performance
Optimal Level of Arousal: People seek an optimal level of arousal that maximizes their performance
Motivation that results from the “pull” of external environmental stimuli: External stimuli that prompts goal directed behavior, often, we are unaware of the incentive, for example: Aroma of food may cause us to eat even when we are not hungry, advertisements that lead us to buy a product we do not necessarily need
- Motivation affected by attributions and expectations:
- Intrinsic motivation: motivation for a behavior is the behavior itself, example children enjoy playing on the swing set
- Extrinsic motivation: Behavior is performed in order to obtain a reward or to avoid punishment: cash incentives at work
- Interaction of biological, psychological, and social needs; lower motives (physiological and
safety) must be met before higher needs (belonging, self-esteem)
Motivation and Behavior – Hunger and Thirst
- Psychological factors: visual cues and cultural conditioning
- Cultural and Environmental factors: Repsonses to food are governed by learning and social conditioning, culture influences what we choose to eat
- Obesity: Results from numerous biological and psychosocial factors
- Anorexia nervosa/Bulimia Nervosa: results from fear of becoming obese resulting from numerous biological and psychosocial factors
Motivation and Behavior – Achievement
- High need for achievement
- Prefers moderately difficult tasks
- Prefers clear goals with competent feedback
- Prefers responsibility
- More Accomplished
Three Components of Emotion
- Physiological: Arousal comes from the brain, particularly the limbic and autonomic nervous system
- Cognitive: Thoughts, values, and expectations
- Behavioral: Expressions, gestures, and body position
Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Motivation:
Intrinsic rewards come from within – no monetary value.
Extrinsic rewards may lower interest and motivation.
Emotional Intelligence (EI): Is the ability to know and manage one’s emotions, empathize, and maintain satisfying relationships.
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